吉林唯美饲料新闻网 http://ysoln.cn/yangzhi/最专业的饲料厂家牛进食消化牛饲料的过程 http://ysoln.cn/yangzhi/post/118.html<p><span style="font-size: 16px;">牛进食饲草</span><a href="http://ysoln.cn/" target="_self" style="font-size: 16px; text-decoration: underline;"><span style="font-size: 16px;"><strong>牛饲料</strong></span></a><span style="font-size: 16px;">速度快,一般饲料不经充分咀嚼便匆匆到达胃中。 因此对牛胃要求与猪、马、兔等家畜的胃不同,不仅要容积大,而且构造 和功能也要与单胃家畜的胃不同。牛胃正是适应了这种特点,它由瘤 胃(俗称“草包”)、网胃(又叫“蜂巢胃”)、瓣胃(俗称“百叶肚”)、皱胃(又 称真胃或腺胃)4部分组成。前3个胃无腺体组织分布,不分泌胃液,主 要起贮存食物、水和发酵分解粗纤维的作用,一般统称为前胃。皱胃内 有腺体分布,可分泌胃液,与前胃对照,称为后胃。牛口腔内摄入的饲 料经初步咀嚼后由咽进入瘤胃,饲料先在瘤胃内和水及唾液混合,被揉 磨、浸泡、软化、发酵,然后再进入后胃。推荐阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/niusiliao/134.html" target="_self"><strong>小牛犊的饲料配方</strong></a></span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;">(―}瘤胃</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;">瘤胃呈椭圆形,是成年牛4个胃室中最大的一个,占据整个腹腔的 左半侧和右侧下半部。瘤胃前后稍长,左右稍扁,前端与后端有凹陷的 前沟和后&#39;沟,左右侧面有较浅的纵沟,在瘤胃壁内面与这些沟对应部位 为肌柱围成环状,将瘤胃分成背囊和腹囊两大部分。背囊和腹囊前后 两端,由于前后沟很深,这样就形成了 4个囊区:前背盲囊、前腹盲囊、 后背盲囊、后腹盲囊。</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;">饲料在瘤-中停留20〜48 h,相当于整个消化过程的1/2时间(饲 料在消化道停留的总时间为40〜70 h)。瘤胃每50〜60 s收缩一次。</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;">瘤胃壁由黏膜层、肌肉层及浆膜层构成,黏膜表面有无数个指状突 起,称乳头状突起。这些乳头状突起增加了胃壁与食糜的接触面积和 对发酵终产物(挥发性脂肪酸和氨)的吸收。瘤胃使牛能够大量利用植</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;">物细胞壁。</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;">网胃是位于膈顶后方与瘤胃前方的一个囊状消化器官。贲门(食 道和瘤胃背囊交界&amp;)和瘤-网胃皱褶(位于腹囊内)将网胃与瘤胃隔 开。网胃约占4胃总容积的5%,胃壁黏膜形成许多网格状皱褶,形似 蜂巢,并布满角质化乳头,又称蜂巢胃。</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;">随着网胃的有力收缩,瘤-网皱褶移位,从而将网胃内的消化物推 向上方进入瘤胃,这一过程随瘤胃肌肉收缩反复。同时,在这一过程中 网-瓣口打开,细小浓稠的消化物流人瓣胃。而粗大稀疏的消化物流回 瘤胃腹囊。</span></p><p><span style="font-size: 16px;">推荐阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/niusiliao/132.html" target="_self"><strong>育肥牛饲料配方</strong></a></span></p><p><br/></p>Tue, 29 Aug 2017 19:12:16 +0800羔羊与育成羊的营养需要 http://ysoln.cn/yangzhi/post/117.html<p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羔羊与育成羊的营养需要</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">哺乳期的羔羊是一生中生长发育强度最大而又最难饲养</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">的一个阶段,稍有不慎不仅会影响羊的发育和体质,还会造成</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羔羊发病率和死亡率增加,给养羊生产造成重大损失。羊从出</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">生到</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">L5</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">岁,肌肉、骨骼和各器官组织的发育较快,需要沉积</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">大量的蛋白质和矿物质,尤其是初生至</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">8月龄,是羊生长发育</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">最快的阶段,对营养的需要量较高。羔羊在哺乳前期</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">(〇</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">〜8</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">周龄)主要依靠母乳来满足其营养需要,母乳充足时羔羊发育</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">好、增重快、健康活泼。母乳可分为初乳和常乳,母羊产后第</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">一周内分泌的乳叫做初乳,以后的则为常乳。初乳浓度大,养</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">分含量高,羔羊出生后,要尽快让羔羊吃上母羊的初乳,初乳</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">里含有免疫物质,有增强体质、抵抗疾病和排出胎粪等很重要</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">的作用。而后期</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">(9</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">〜16周龄</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">),</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">必须给羔羊单独补饲。哺乳</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">期羔羊的生长发育非常快,每千克增重仅需母乳</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">5kg</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">左右。羔</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">羊断奶后,日增重略低一些,在一定的补饲条件下,羔羊</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">8</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">月龄前的日增重可保持在100〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">200g</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">左右。羊增重的可食成分</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">主要是蛋白质(肌肉</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">)</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">和脂肪。在羊的不同生理阶段,蛋白质</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">和脂肪的沉积量是不一样的,例如,体重为</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">10kg</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">时,蛋白质</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">的沉积量可占增重的35%;体重在50〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">60kg</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">时,此比例下降</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">为</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">10%左右,脂肪沉积的比例则明显上升。推荐阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/539.html" target="_self"><strong>养羊的饲料配方</strong></a></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">到了育成阶段,主要依靠<a href="http://ysoln.cn/" target="_self"><strong>羊饲料</strong></a>来满足生长发育的营养需</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">要,这一阶段的增重虽然没有哺乳期那样迅速,但是在</span>8月龄</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">以前,如果饲养条件好,山羊的日增重仍可达</span>150〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">200g。</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊在生长发育阶段的可塑性很大,营养充足与否直接影响到山</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊成年后的体型与体重,山羊体躯各部位生长发育的强度不一</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">致,头部、四肢及皮肤等在早期就发育完成,胸腔、骨盆、腰</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">部等部位发育较晚,所需时间较长,若营养先好后差,则早期</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">生长发育的组织与器官得到充分的生长与发育,而后期发育的</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">组织与器官生长发育不良,生产实践中所见的是四肢较高但胸</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">腔较窄与浅的山羊;若营养先差后好,则抑制早期发育的组织</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">与器官的生长与发育,促进晚熟组织与器官的生长发育,山羊</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">体型亦出现畸形。</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">山羊在育成阶段对蛋白质的需求较高,从断奶后到</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">15月</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">龄的母羊需要可消化蛋白质105〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">110g,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">公羊需要135〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">160g,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">育成阶段骨骼生长发育迅速,对矿物质的需要量大,尤其是对</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">钙、磷的需求非常迫切,育成期的母羊,每日约需钙</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">5.0</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">6.6g,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">磷</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">3.2</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">3.6g。</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">维生素对育成阶段的山羊了也十分重要,尤其</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">是维生素</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">A</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">和</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">D,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">若饲料中缺乏维生素</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">A,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">山羊出现表皮组</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">织角质化、神经系统功能退化、繁殖机能下降、免疫功能降低、</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">易感染各种疾病等;若缺乏维生素</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">D,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">山羊表现为生长发育不</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">良、体型短小、甚至出现佝偻病等。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">看过这篇文章的人都看了;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/532.html" target="_self"><strong>东北育肥羊饲料配方</strong></a></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px">推荐相关阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/544.html" target="_self"><strong>羊颗粒饲料配方</strong></a></p><p><br/></p>Sat, 24 Jun 2017 09:10:09 +0800饲养肉用山羊的生活习性 http://ysoln.cn/yangzhi/post/115.html<p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊的生活习性</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">一、山羊的生活习性</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">这里所介绍的山羊生活习性仅限于与日常饲养有关的习</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">性,而不是山羊的全部习性。我们了解山羊的生活习性,有助</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">于人们更好地管理与利用它,只有通过平时的实践观察,多和</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊接触,才能更好地熟悉山羊的生活习性。建议阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/537.html" target="_self"><strong>羊饲料的最佳配方</strong></a></span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(一)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">活泼好动,喜登高</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊行动敏捷,喜好攀登墙垣、土坡等高处,在山区的陡</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">坡和悬崖上山羊能够行走自如,当高处有喜吃的牧草和树叶</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">时,山羊能将其前肢攀在岩石或树干上,后肢直立去采食高处</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">的牧草或树叶</span>,这是所有山羊比较突出的习性之一。群众有“精</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊,疲绵羊</span>”的说法。</span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(二)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">爱干燥、清洁,恶潮湿</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊喜高燥,恶潮湿,适于在干燥凉爽的山区生活。在羊</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">舍选址时应选择在高燥地区建场,羊舍修建时羊床要高出地面</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">lm</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">左右。在饲养管理上,平时尽量不要在低洼潮湿地放牧,</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">不能受雾露雨淋,应喂给洁净的草料和清水,以保证羊只健康。推荐阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/538.html" target="_self"><strong>羊饲料发酵剂</strong></a></span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(三)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">适应性强,采食广</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊对不良的自然环境条件适应性强,耐寒、耐热、抗病</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">力强,因此,山羊群中的病羊不易发觉</span></span><sub><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px;vertical-align: sub"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">?</span></span></sub><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">&nbsp;<span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">一旦发现有病,则病</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">已严重,所以要求放牧人要经常注意观察,及早发现,及时治</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">疗。山羊采食广,能采食</span>600多种植物,但不爱吃有刺毛的草</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">和带有蜡脂的草,也不大吃牛尾草</span>,拒食被畜禽便污染的牧草,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊特别喜欢食用树枝嫩叶,因此,很适宜在灌木林地放牧。</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">在封山育林地区,应该采取适合当地的饲养方式,以防损坏林</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">业。山羊是反刍动物,能较好地利用豆桔、豆荚及玉米秸杆等</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">粗饲料。在能吃饱青草的季节或有较好青干草补饲的情况下,</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">不需补饲精料,就可以保证正常的生理活动和育肥。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(四)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">合群性强</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊合群性强,一般不单独离群,个别山羊离群时鸣叫不</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">安。因此,在山羊群中选</span>1〜2只山羊作领头羊,有利于山羊</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">的群牧管理。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(五)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">性成熟早,繁殖率高</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊属于常年发情动物,一般</span></span><sub><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px;vertical-align: sub">4</span></sub><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">〜</span></span><sub><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px;vertical-align: sub">6</span></sub><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">月龄性成熟,</span></span><sub><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px;vertical-align: sub">8</span></sub><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">〜</span></span><sub><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px;vertical-align: sub">10</span></sub><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">月龄初配,</span>•平均产羔率为200%,因而可以在很短时间内建立</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">起羊群,为扩大规模养殖创造了条件,同时也为山羊适应环境</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">的改变具有很大的伸缩性。</span></span></p><p>看过这篇文章的人都看了;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/539.html" target="_self"><strong>养羊的饲料配方</strong></a></p>Sat, 24 Jun 2017 08:53:55 +0800山羊的营养需要与饲养标准 http://ysoln.cn/yangzhi/post/116.html<p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊的营</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">养需要与饲养标准</span></p><p><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">羊所需要的营养物质包括蛋白质、碳水化合物、脂肪、矿</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">物质、维生素和水。蛋白质是羊体生长和组织修复的主要原料,</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">也提供部分能量;蛋白质是由氨基酸组成的含氮化合物,是羊</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">休组织生长和修复的重要原料。同时,羊体内的各种酶、内分</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">泌、色素和抗体等大多是氨蕋酸的衍生物,离开了蛋白质,生</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">命就无法维持。在维持条件下,蛋白质主要用于满足组织新陈</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">代谢和维持正常生理机能的需要;碳水化合物和脂肪主要为羊</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">提供生存和生产所必需的能量,碳水化合物包括淀粉、糖类、</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">半纤维素、纤维素和木质素等,是组成<a href="http://ysoln.cn/" target="_self"><strong>羊饲料</strong></a>的主体;矿物质、</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">维生素和水,在调节羊的生理机能、保障营养物质和代谢产物</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">的传输方面,具有重要作用。羊即使处于完全饥饿的状态下,</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">为维持正常的代谢活动,仍需消耗一定的矿物质。所以,在维</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">持饲养时必须保证一定水平的矿物质量。羊最易缺乏的矿物质</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">是钙、磷和食盐,其中钙、磷是组成牙齿和骨骼的主要成分。</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">此外,还应补充必要的矿物质微量元素,羊在维持生命时也要</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">消耗一定的维生素,必须由饲料来补充,特别是维生素</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">A</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">和</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">D。</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">在羊的冬季日粮中搭配一些胡萝卜或青贮饲料,能保证羊的维</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">生素需要;水对人、畜都是不可缺少的营养成分之一,是动物</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">机体的主要组成成分,体内各种养分的吸收、转运代谢及废物</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">的排出必须先溶于水后才能进行,水的溶解力很强,是最好的</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">溶剂,水的比热大,导热性好,能很好地调节体温,水同时是</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">动物体内化学反应的介质</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">,所以要为羊提供充足、卫生的饮水,</span><span style="text-indent: 24px; font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">这是羊只保健的重要环节。推荐阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/536.html" target="_self"><strong>圈养羊饲料配方</strong></a></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊的营养需要得不到满足,就会动用体内贮存的养分来弥</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">补亏损,导致体重下降或体质衰弱等不良后果。只有当日粮中</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">的能量和蛋白质等营养物质超出羊的维持需要时,羊才能维持</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">一定水平的生产能力。干乳空怀的母羊和非配种季节的成年公</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊,大都处于维持饲养状态,对营养水平要求不高。山羊的维</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">持需要,与同体重的其他羊相似或略低。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊按年龄可分为羔羊、育成羊及成年羊,成年羊又可根</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">据生产目的不同分种用羊和育肥羊,不同的生理阶段对营养物</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">质的需要不同。</span></span></p><p>建议阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/537.html" target="_self"><strong>羊饲料的最佳配方</strong></a></p><p><br/></p>Fri, 23 Jun 2017 08:53:03 +0800肉用山羊品种的改良方法 http://ysoln.cn/yangzhi/post/114.html<p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">本品种选育是指在本品种内通过选种选配、品系繁育、改</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">善培育条件等措施,以提高品种生产性能的一种育种方法。木</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">品种选育的目的是保持和发展本品种的优良特性,克服某些缺</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">点,并保持品种的纯度,不断提高品种的数量和质量。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">本品种选育主要用于山羊地方良种的选育提高。我国各地</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊品种中有不少地方良种,它们都具有良好的适应性和某种</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">突出的生产性能。这些地方良种只能通过本品种选育的方法才</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">能既保持品种原有的特性,同时又提高整个品种的生产性能。推荐阅读;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/544.html" target="_self"><strong>羊颗粒饲料配方</strong></a></span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">地方良种的选育程序有以下几个方面:</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(1)</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">对品种资源进行全面普查,调查了解品种的分布区</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">域及其自然条件、生态环境、品种的特征特性、数量、生长发</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">育和生产性能,以及当地饲养管理状况和存在的主要问题,摸</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">清品种现状。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(2)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">在调查摸底的基础上确定理想型要求,制定品种标</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">准和鉴定分级方法。并按照鉴定分级标准对羊群进行鉴定整</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">群,按级组群,将符合理想型标准的羊只集中起来建立选育核</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">心群。对现有的全部公进行严格鉴定,凡不符合要求的公羊</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">一律淘汰。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(3)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">制定科学的选育目标和选育实施方案,指导选育工</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">作。选育方案的基本内容包括:种公羊和种母羊的选择标准和</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">培养方法、羊群饲养管理制度、选配方法等技术措施,及生产</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">经营制度等。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">选入核心群的羊只,尤其种公羊,必须是符合品种标准的</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">优良个体。核心群的任务是为本品种选育工作提供优质种羊</span>,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">为一般繁殖群提供优秀种公羊。在选育工作中选优去劣,淘汰</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">不良个体。一旦发现特别优秀的公羊,应采用人工授精,扩大</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">利用率,充分发挥其优良特征。建议阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/535.html" target="_self"><strong>小尾寒羊饲料配方</strong></a></span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">二、羊的杂交改良</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">杂交改良是指通过杂交的方式获得杂种优势,以提高地方</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">品种的生产性能或改变地方品种的生产方向的方法总称。</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">对于生产性能低、没有特殊价值的土种羊,应进行杂交改</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">良。杂交改良的目的不同,采用的杂交方法也不同。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">具体方法</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">如下</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">;</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">一</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">)</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">级进杂交</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">以土种羊为母本,生产性能高的优良种公羊作父本进行杂</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">交,</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">级进代数越多,杂种后代愈接近优质种羊品种特性。但级</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">进代数并非越多越好,需根据杂种后代的具体情况灵活掌握。</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">一般级进到</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">3代,即转入横交自繁。</span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(二)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">育成杂交</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">主要用来培育新品种,无固定杂交模式。</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(三)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">导入杂交</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">在导入杂交后代中选择含外血</span>1/2或1/4的优良个体与原</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">品种进行回交,然后进行自群繁育。通过这种方法,不仅能保</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">持原品种的生产方向和特性,而且能迅速、有效地改进品种某</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">些缺点。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">看过这篇文章的人都去看了;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/536.html" target="_self"><strong>圈养羊饲料配方</strong></a></span></span></p><p><br/></p>Fri, 23 Jun 2017 07:49:35 +0800肉用山羊的品种介绍 http://ysoln.cn/yangzhi/post/113.html<p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">世界各地山羊品种和类型繁多。据目前所知,全世界己形</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">成的山羊品种有</span>150多个。为便于研究和利用,必须对品种进</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">行分类。最常用的方法是按经济用途分类。小编建议大家阅读;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/536.html" target="_self"><strong>圈养羊饲料配方</strong></a></span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊品种按经济用途分类,主要分为</span>7个类型:</span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(1)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">乳用山羊如崂山奶山羊、关中奶山羊、努比亚山</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(2)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">肉用山羊如南江黄羊、马头山羊、波尔山羊。</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(3)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">绒用山羊如辽宁绒山羊、内蒙古白绒山羊。</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(4)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羔皮用山羊如济宁青山羊。</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(5)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">裘皮用山羊如中卫山羊。</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(6)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">普通山羊如新疆山羊、西藏山羊。</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(7)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">毛用山羊如安哥拉山羊等。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">二、</span></span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">我国主要山羊品种</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(一)乳用山羊</span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">1.</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">关中奶山羊</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><br/></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">原产地:</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">陕西省渭河平原,是以当地山羊为基础,主要利用莎能奶</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">山羊经过长期杂交选育而成的乳用品种。现主要分布在关中的</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">富平、三源、泾阳、蒲城等</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">8个奶山羊基地县。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">外貌特征:</span></span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">、</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">体质结实,乳用型明显,头长额宽,眼大耳长,鼻直嘴齐。</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">母羊颈长,胸宽,背腰平直,腹大而不下垂,尻部宽长,有适</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">度倾斜,乳房大,多呈方圆形,</span>•质地柔软,乳头大小适中。公</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊头大颈粗,胸宽深,腹部紧凑。睾丸发育良好,公母羊四肢</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">结实,姿势端正,蹄质结实,呈蜡黄色。毛短色白,皮肤粉红</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">色,部分羊耳、鼻、唇及乳房有大小不等的黑斑,老龄更甚。</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><br/></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">体尺与生产性能:</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">成年公羊体高在</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">82cm</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">以上,成年母羊体高在</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">69cm</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">以上</span>;</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">成年公羊体重在</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">65kg</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">以上,成年母羊体重在</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">45kg</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">以上。一般</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">饲养条件下,优良个体羊平均产奶量</span>:一胎</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">450kg,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">二胎</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">520kg,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">三胎</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">600kg,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">高产个体在</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">700kg</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">以上,含脂率</span>3.8%〜4.3%。</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">饲养条件好,产奶量可提高</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">15%〜20%。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">母羊平均怀孕天数为</span>149.5±2.45天,一胎产黑率平均为</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">130%,二胎以上平均为174%。推荐羊饲料配方请阅读;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/534.html" target="_self">育肥羊饲料配方</a></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">缺点:</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">品种内个体差异大,今后应加强选育和提纯,以充分挖掘</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">其生产潜力。</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">2.</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">崂山奶山羊</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><br/></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">原产地:</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">这是从</span>1904年幵始在青岛的崂山及胶东等地先后从德、</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">英等国引入奶山羊,经过长期与当地山羊杂交选育而培育成的</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">地方优良奶山羊品种,具有耐粗饲、生长发育快、产奶量高、</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">适应性强、遗传性能稳定等优良特性,主要分布在</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">ill</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">东省东部、</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">胶东半岛及山东中南等地。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">外貌特征:</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">崂山奶山羊毛色纯白,毛细短,皮肤呈粉红色,富有弹性,</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">成年羊的头部、耳及乳房的皮肤多有黑色的皮肤斑点。公、母</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊大多数无角,体质结实,结构紧凑而匀称,头长额宽,鼻直</span>,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">眼大,嘴齐,耳薄较长,向前外方伸展。公羊颈粗壮,母羊颈</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">薄长,胸部宽广,肋骨开张良好。背腰平直,尻略下斜,母羊</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">腹大而不下垂,乳房附着良好,上方下圆,乳头大小适中,四</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">肢端正,蹄质结实,在整体结构上看,具有良好的乳用体形。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">体尺与生产性能:</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">成年峻山奶山羊公羊的体高为</span>80〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">88cm,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">体长为</span>86〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">93cm,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">胸围为</span>98〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">104cm;</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">成年母羊的体尺分别为</span>69〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">74cm、</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">71〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">80cm、</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">79〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">88cm。</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">成年公羊体重为</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">8CK14kg,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">成年母羊体</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">重为</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">49.58kg。</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">在良好的饲养条件下优秀的群体一岁公羊体重</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">可达</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">60kg</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">以上,母羊体重在</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">50kg</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">以上,成年公羊的体重可达</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">100kg</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">左右,成年母羊体重在</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">55kg</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">左右。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">99%的人看过这篇文章后,都去看了;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/532.html" target="_self"><strong>东北育肥羊饲料配方</strong></a></span></span></p><p><br/></p>Thu, 22 Jun 2017 09:44:53 +0800肉用山羊养殖经济效益分析 http://ysoln.cn/yangzhi/post/112.html<p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊肉生产经济要素分析</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊肉生产需具备的要素有羊只、饲草、劳力、技术、资</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">金、交通等,在这些要素中,在农区具有优势条件的要素有:</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">劳力多,饲草来源广泛,精料添加容易;其劣势是草地草质差</span>,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">经营分散,需要用产业化生产链条连接。另外,山羊肉产业化</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">生产所需资金少,便于启动,而且肉的生产比奶的生产对交通</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">条件的依赖少,这些都是发展肉山羊业的有利条件。但是,其</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">产业形成却有赖于效益推动。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">从效益形成角度分析,牧业生产效益来自三个方面:一为</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">生态因素带来的效益,如草地利用,其投入少,饲养成本低;</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">二为技术因素带来的效益,如良种和饲养科学化,促进生产效</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">率提高</span>;三为社会因子带来的效益,如市场供需差异带来收益。</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊肉生产可分为繁殖公、母畜放牧饲养和羔羊舍饲肥育两部</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">分,它的效益产生于:</span>①利用牧草、秸秆饲养带来的生态经济</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">效益;</span>②羔羊肉属于优质肉类,它的生产将填补市场缺口,为</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">肉山羊业带来社会经济效益;</span>③随着波尔山羊经济利用方式及</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">相关技术的推广,也会使羊肉中蕴含的高技术产生高经济效</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">益。推荐阅读;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/536.html" target="_self"><strong>圈养羊饲料配方</strong></a></span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(5)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊具有快速游走、攀缘利用陡峭山地上的小块草</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">地的能力。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(6)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊对湿冷以外的气候条件有广泛的适应力。这个</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">特性有利于山羊对我国南北方草资源的全面利用。其利用效果</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">若与牛、绵羊比较,在自然灌丛植被条件下放牧山羊,可获得</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">维持饲养和低的生产饲养要求;放牧绵羊仅可获得维持需要,</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">而放牧牛连维持需要也不能满足。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">以上这些特点,反映出山羊对我国中原、南方草资源有明</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">显的利用优势。小编建议大家阅读;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/537.html" target="_self"><strong>羊饲料的最佳配方</strong></a></span></span></p><p>看过以上文章的人,大多数都看了;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/539.html" target="_self"><strong>养羊的饲料配方</strong></a></p>Thu, 22 Jun 2017 07:34:25 +0800美国养羊行业的经营方式方法 http://ysoln.cn/yangzhi/post/111.html<p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">国外肉羊业基本为主导经营,有些还在羔羊肉生产中实行</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">集约化生产,在技术上推行品种良种化、生产杂交配套体系化、</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">饲养标准化。他们的集约化生产应用的是全价颗粒饲料、人工</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">乳饲养羔羊,采用繁殖控制技术进行生产,羊舍实行最佳环境</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">参数设计,达到批量周转、整批管理的</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">0的。而我国肉羊业的</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">经营有两种方式:</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">①在牧区依赖天然草地放牧和农副产品补饲</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">生产羊肉;</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">②在农区进行依附性经营。依附性经营是依靠农副</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">产品、零星草地、剩余劳力做<a href="http://ysoln.cn/" target="_self"><strong>羊饲料</strong></a>进行羊肉生产,其产出只作农业收</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">入补充。这种依附性经营方式投入少,产出也少,难以形成商</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">品优势。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">另外,从饲养工作的管理特点看,在主导经营下羊只饲养</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">是以羊只营养需要为依据,组织配合日粮;而依附性经营是有</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">什么草料喂什么草料,羊只生产水平受到供给条件强烈的约</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">束。推荐阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/539.html" target="_self"><strong>养羊的饲料配方</strong></a></span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">5.</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊肉生产效率</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">国内外羊肉生产由于生产技术的差异,也带来效率不同:</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(1)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">出栏率。根据国家统计局和联合国粮农组织公布的</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">资料,</span>1993年末,我国山羊出栏率为36.8%,远低于澳大利亚</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">(74.4%)、法国(54.5%)、西班牙(43.4%)、塞浦路斯(42.3%)</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">等国。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(2)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">平均胴体重。我国山羊平均胴体重为</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">11kg,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">低于世</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">界平均水平</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">(</span>12kg),</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">日本</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">(</span>33kg)</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">等</span>98个国家或地区的屠宰</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊平均胴体重。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(3)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">年末存栏绵山羊平均产肉量。我国平均产肉量为</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">6.9kg,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">远低于美国(〗</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">4.3kg)、</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">塞浦路斯</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">(</span>14kg)、</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">法国</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">(</span>13.84kg)、</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">巴基斯坦</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">(</span>11.24kg)、</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">新西兰</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">(</span>10.16kg)</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">等国。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">建议阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/537.html" target="_self"><strong>羊饲料的最佳配方</strong></a><br/></span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(三)我国山羊肉的生产优势</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">肉山羊业在我国牧业生产中是最薄弱的产业,它不仅生产</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">水平低、生产效益差,而且对资源的利用也极不合理。但是</span>,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">由于我国草资源的特点及山羊的固有特性,却使它蕴含有潜在</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">的发展优势。</span></span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">,</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">1.</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">我国草地资源特点</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(1)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">我国约有草地</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">4.07</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">亿公顷,占国土面积的</span>40%,其</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">中,南方草地</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">0.47</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">亿公顷,占草地的</span>11%。在我国的草地中,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">牧业重点省份的草地,其中开发强度较大的己有不同程度的退</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">化,而南方草地还利用不足。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(2)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">我国草原随气候湿润系数减少,草群中粗蛋白质</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">含量逐步增加,而游离的无氮浸出物含量却相对减少。这种草</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">群的营养比(碳:氮)与草原的利用方向有关。其处于牧区低</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">比的典型草原和荒漠草原,粗蛋白质含量高,适宜发展毛用畜</span>,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">目前己形成我国毛羊基地。处于我国农区的高比零星草地,适</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">于肉羊发展。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(3)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">我国农区生产山羊肉占到全国山羊肉总量的</span>88%。</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">在农区用于养羊的生产条件为:</span>①草地分布零散,且大多分布</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">于丘陵山地;</span>②从北向南草层愈来愈高,产草量愈来愈多,但</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">含粗纤维愈来愈多,含蛋白质愈来愈少;</span>③在草地中分布较多</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">灌木丛,而且草地与农田插花分布形成农牧结合生产态势;</span>④</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">在农区,农副产品丰富,精料来源容易,劳力多,有利于推行</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">分层利用资源的羊肉生产模式。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">2.</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊的生物学、生态学特性,有利于对我国中原、南</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">方草地和农副产品的利用</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(1)</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">对牧草的采食。在反刍畜中,山羊与牛、绵羊相比</span>,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊、牛、绵羊采食牧草种类数分别为</span>90 : 17 : 20,山羊采</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">食饲草种类数明显多于牛、绵羊。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(2)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">据报道,山羊在草地放牧时,把</span>53%的采食时间用</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">在灌木嫩枝叶的采食上,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">38%的采食时间用在禾本科草以及其</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">他阔叶草上,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">9%的采食时间用在补充饲料或其他零星草采食</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">活动上。在牧草的采食中,山羊明显喜食灌木,这有利于对灌</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">丛草地利用。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(3)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊对牧草的种类和部位有挑食的习性。这个习性</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">在自由放牧条件下放牧时,羊只采食的营养高于将这些草收割</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">后供给羊只饲喂时所含的营养。</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(4)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊对粗纤维消化率高。根据</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">Eihag( 1976)</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">对山羊、</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">绵羊的对比测定,山羊、绵羊对优质草的利用基本相近,对劣</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">质草中有机物和粗蛋白的利用也基本相同,而对劣质饲草中的</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">细胞壁消化程度山羊较绵羊高</span></span></p><p>看过这篇文章的人我建议大家阅读;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/536.html" target="_self"><strong>圈养羊饲料配方</strong></a></p>Wed, 21 Jun 2017 09:47:55 +0800我国养羊业和国外养羊业的对比 http://ysoln.cn/yangzhi/post/110.html<p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">二次世界大战以后,国外对肉类的要求由成畜肉转向幼畜</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">肉。肥羔由于瘦肉多、脂肪少、味美、鲜嫩多汁、膻味小、易</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">消化等优点,很受欢迎。同时,羔羊出生后最初几个月生长快、</span></span><a href="http://ysoln.cn/" target="_self"><strong><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">饲料</span></span></strong></a><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">报酬高、价格高而成本低,因此,一些养羊业发达的国家</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">都在繁育早熟肉用品种的基础上进行肥羔的专业化生产,肥羔</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">的产量迅速增长。肥羔生产已发展为由专营工厂化进行,这种</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">工厂的规模有的很大,每批可生产肥羔几万只。新西兰在人工</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">草场上进行羔羊的放牧肥育</span>,4〜5月龄时屠宰,体重可达36〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">40kg。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">由于肥羔业的发展,有些国家的养羊业做到周转快、产品</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">率高、成本低。在绵羊育种工作中特别重视提高早熟性和产羔</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">率,有些国家已育成一些新品种。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">养羊由自然放牧转向现代化生产,一些养羊业较发达的国</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">家,在粗放地区经营细毛羊,半集约经营地区养肉毛兼用或毛</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">肉兼用半细毛羊,集约经营地区养肉用羊和生产肥羔。羊场的</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">经营也越来越专门化,根据目的不同,有所分工。推荐阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/544.html" target="_self"><strong>羊颗粒饲料配方</strong></a></span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">在改良天然草场和人工草场上狠下工夫,以充分利用草地</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">资源,提高载畜量和产品率。其中有些国家建立集约化经营的</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">人工草场,产草量和草的营养价值高,不到一亩地养一只羊,</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">是提高载畜量的有效措施。不少国家对牧草种子的选育工作不</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">下于粮食作物,完全摆脱了</span> “靠天养畜”的局面。如新西兰已</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">有</span>2/3以上的草场经过改良和建成人工草场,全国平均每</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">3.3</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">亩地养一只羊。饲草饲料的种植、收割、加工都实行了机械化。</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">同时采用草场围栏分区轮牧的方法,既有利于合理利用草场,</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">又可防止寄生虫的感染。生产过程中的喂饲、饮水、剪毛、药</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">浴等都实现了机械化,一名牧工加上牧羊犬的辅助,可以管理</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">几千只羊,劳动生产率大大提高,加以饲养优良绵羊品种,因</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">而可以达到以最低的成本获得最高产量的优质产品。养羊业中</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">重视育种工作,同时也非常重视经济杂交,利用杂交优势来提</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">高生产性能。由于采用先的科学技术成果和生产手段,使养</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊业走向现代化生产。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(二)我国肉羊业生产技术水平与牧业发达国家之间的对</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">比</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">1.</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">良种化水平</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">国外肉羊基本为培育品种,很多国家肉羊生产己实行父母</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">系间品种杂交配套。如美国采用萨福克、汉普夏、南丘羊、蒙</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">特代羊、切维特、雪洛普夏、牛津羊等作父系品种,采用兰布</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">里耶、考力代、塔吉羊、波利帕羊等作母系品种,进行父母系</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">间杂交,利用杂种优势进行商品生产。英国以苏格兰黑面羊为</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">母系,以边区莱斯特、萨福克、汉普夏、无角道塞特等为父系</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">进行肉羊杂交生产。新西兰饲养的肉羊有罗姆尼、萨福克、汉</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">普夏羊,均为世界名种。澳大利亚肉羊生产实行三元杂交,以</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">美利奴为母本,先用边区莱斯特交配生产杂交一代,后用无角</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">道塞特公羊杂交。法国饲养的肉羊品种有:法兰西岛羊、德国</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">肉用美利奴羊、泊利考斯羊、夏洛来羊等。世界上目前公认的</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">山羊肉羊良种为波尔山羊</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">(Boer)。</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">波尔山羊目前已分布到世</span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">界大多数山羊生产国。这些良种的性能表现为:建议阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/535.html" target="_self"><strong>小尾寒羊饲料配方</strong></a></span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">1)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">生产快</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">如陕西省饲养的三个肉羊良种:波尔山羊</span>3月龄前日增重</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">为</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">227g;</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">萨福克羊</span>4月龄前日增重为</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">337g</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(夏洛来羊4月龄</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">体重为</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">.35</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">〜</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">4.5kg,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">这些品种羊的生长速度高出我国一般肉用</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊生产速度</span>2〜3倍。</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">•</span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(2)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">繁殖性能高</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">波尔山羊产羔率为</span>160%〜220%,萨福克为130%〜140%,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">夏洛来在</span>180%以上。</span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(3)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">每千克增重消耗饲料少</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">波尔山羊肥羔生产,每增重</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">lkg,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">消耗饲料</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">3.9kg </span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(以饲</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">料干物质计</span>)。</span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(4)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">产肉效率高</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">经南非在同一条件下对比测定,绵山羊良种屠宰率:波尔</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">山羊为</span>48.3%,道帕尔绵羊为48.5%,南非肉用美利奴为</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">46.6%,美利奴为41%;肉骨比:波尔山羊为4.7:1,道帕尔</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">为</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">4.76 </span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">: 1,南非肉用美利奴为</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">4.4 </span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">: 1,美利奴为</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">4.3 </span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">: 1,这</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">个对比测定说明了山羊中波尔山羊和绵羊中道帕尔品种都是</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">多肉品种。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(5)</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">杂交配套后表现杂交优势明显</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><br/></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">据测定,一般品种间杂交可使后代的生长速度提高</span>5%〜</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">7%,三元杂交使羔羊断奶活重增加30%。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">我国肉羊生产主要是利用地方绵羊、山羊品种进行生产,</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">由于这些品种未经系统选育,其生产水平较低。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">2.</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊肉的生产方式</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">国外羊肉生产多利用品种间杂交生产商品肉,如美国的羊</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">肉</span>80%为杂交羊的羊肉,法国46%为杂交羊的羊肉;而我国</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">大多是利用地方品种繁殖,直接进行羊肉生产。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">3.</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">生产产品</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">国外羊肉生产大多为羔羊肥育宰杀的肥羔肉,如新西兰羔</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊肉占羊肉总量</span>70%,澳大利亚占60%,美国占94%,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">.</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">这些</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">肥羔肉肉质细嫩、多汁、味道好;而我国多为老羊、残羊或淘</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">汰羊宰杀的老龄羊,其肉质粗硬。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">4.</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">高产支撑条件</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">由于肉羊高产需要较高的营养条件供给,在国外解决营养</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">问题主要是通过以下方法:</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(1)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">草地改良,利用人工草地生产肥羔。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(2)</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">舍词育肥,为育肥羔羊提供高水平肥育混合料。</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">利用地域条件间的优势互补作用,进行异地育肥,使资源</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">得到充分利用。而我国大多采用天然草地放牧及农副产品补饲</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">进行肉羊的生产,其生产效率远不如高产国家。</span></p><p><br/></p><p>看过这篇文章的人都去看了;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/537.html" target="_self"><strong>羊饲料的最佳配方</strong></a></p>Wed, 21 Jun 2017 07:42:05 +0800中国的养羊行业发展方向 http://ysoln.cn/yangzhi/post/109.html<p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">大力推进养羊业优势产业带建设</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">在肉羊发展方面要突出中原、内蒙古中东部及河北北部、</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">西北和西南肉羊优势生产区域建设,以生产优质羊肉为核心,</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">以发展产业化经营为突破口,在重点优势区域内实行规模化生</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">产、标准化管理,力争在几年内建成优势羊肉产业带,最大限</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">度地满足国内市场对羊肉产品的需求。在绒山羊发展方面,以</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">内蒙古、新疆、辽宁等省为重点区域,从稳定生产和减轻草地</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">压力的角度出发控制绒用山羊数量,提高单产和品质,满足</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">p</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">内市场需要,积极扩大出口。在绵羊毛生产优势区域,重点提</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">高绵羊个体产毛量和羊毛品质,实现优质细毛羊的规范化生</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">产;全面推行机械剪毛、羊毛出边、分级整理、机械打包等规</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">范化的模式。建议阅读文章;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/437.html" target="_self"><strong>育肥羊饲料添加剂</strong></a></span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">2.</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">进一步强化良种繁育体系建设,提高养羊业良种化水</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">平</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">按照《全国畜禽良种工程二期建设规划》的要求,加强良</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">种场的建设,建立符合我国养羊业生产实际的良种繁育体系。</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">同时争取实施肉羊良种补贴,发挥政策导向作用,调动农民饲</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">养良种的积极性。在注重引进国外优良品种的同时,加强新品</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">种(品系</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">)</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">的培育,从引进为主转向引进和培育并重,逐步形</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">成以自我开发为主的育种体系。积极探索企事业单位和科研院</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">所相结合的育种新机制,扶持肉羊良种企业集团的发展,利用</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">信息技术、生物技术,结合常规技术的应用,加快新品种的培</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">育。重点加强地方品种资源的保护,在保种的同时加强新品种</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">培育和开发,逐步形成以保护促开发、以开发促保护的良性循</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">环机制。推荐阅读;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/539.html" target="_self"><strong>养羊的饲料配方</strong></a></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">3.</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">加快养羊业的科技进步</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">加强养羊业的科技推广力度,坚持良种良法相配套。提高</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">饲养管理水平,加大疫病防控力度,增强抵御风险的能力,增</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">加农民收入。以畜牧业</span>“科技入户”工程为载体,逐步增加肉</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊养殖科技示范县数量,通过示范园、典型户和科技致富户的</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">示范带动作用,提高农民使用先进实用技术的积极性,普及推</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">广良种、高效安全养殖和标准化生产等技术。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">4.</span> <span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">大力发展加工业,积极开拓畜产品市场</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">要积极扶持养羊业加工龙头企业的发展,增强养羊产业的</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">发展后劲,带动养羊业的发展。完善相关的标准体系,加强对</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">产品质量的监控,提高产品质量和安全水平。重视对产品加工</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">关键技术的研究幵发,支持加工企业进行技术改造,鼓励发展</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">肉羊产品的精深加工,实施羊毛收购分级制度。结合无规定动</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">物疫病区建设,培育一批畜产品加工出口基地和跨国经营的示</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">范龙头加工企业,促进畜产品出口。完善并建立羊毛拍卖市场</span>,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">推行羊毛拍卖和工牧直交,减少中间环节,实现优毛优价。</span></span></p><p><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">(一)国外肉羊业概况</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">羊分布在地球上以北半球和南半球南北回归线各</span>40。间的</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">带状区域内最多,这个带状区域内的温度和其他生态条件对羊</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">的生活最适宜。目前北半球分布最多的地方在欧洲西部和南</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">部,即苏联、英国、西班牙、罗马尼亚、保加利亚、南斯拉夫、</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">法国、意大利等国;亚洲羊数分布最多的国家有中国、印度、</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">土耳其、伊朗、伊拉克等国;北美洲主要分布在美国。南半球</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">以拉丁美洲的阿根廷、乌拉圭、巴西、秘鲁等国羊数较多,非</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">洲的南非、埃塞俄比亚、摩洛哥、苏丹等国;大洋洲的澳大利</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">亚、新西兰两国羊数也较多。其中绵羊只数最多的国家依次为</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">澳大利亚、俄罗斯、中国、新西兰、土耳其、印度、阿根廷、</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">伊朗、南非(阿扎尼亚)、英国,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS; font-size: 16px;">•巴西、埃塞俄比亚等国。</span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">19世纪20〜50年代,世界上绵羊以产毛为主,着重生产</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px">60支以上的细毛,而把羊肉的生产列为从属地位,所谓“毛</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">主肉从</span>”。50年代以来,随着冷藏和合成纤维工业的迅速发展,</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">加上肉类消费量的增长,羊肉价格的提高,人们逐渐感到单纯</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">生产细毛而忽视半细毛和羊肉的生产,在经济上是很不合算</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">的,同时毛纺工业技术上的进步,对羊毛细度不像过去那样追</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><br/></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">求很细,因而逐渐向毛肉兼用和肉毛兼用方向发展,欧洲的一</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">些国家如法国等发展为现在的</span>“肉主毛从”的方向。毛纺工业</span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">在对细毛与半细毛的使用和比例上发生新的变化,对支数较粗</span></span><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">的羊毛织品、工业用毛、绒线用毛量的要求亦不断增长。</span></span></p><p style="text-indent:24px"><span style="font-family: MingLiU_HKSCS;font-size: 16px"><span style="font-family:MingLiU_HKSCS">99%的人看了这篇文章后,都去看了;<a href="http://ysoln.cn/yangsiliao/528.html" target="_self"><strong>微贮饲料</strong></a>操作技术</span></span></p><p><br/></p>Tue, 20 Jun 2017 09:00:22 +0800